|The Wise Path|
Misinformed people don't know what they don't know. They mistake falsehoods, misunderstandings, misconceptions, opinions, myths, legends, hearsay, rumors, gossip, and propaganda for established fact. Misinformed people often accept an untrue, incomplete, simplistic, or misleading answer as true rather than recognizing—or at least admit—they don't know the answer.
Misinformed people are often trapped in their own false beliefs and unhelpful rules and too often they are determined to rigidly defend and propagate these falsehoods. They commit, overlook, and often propagate common fallacies such as false dilemma, ad hominem attacks, and overgeneralization. They are often trapped by their need for self-justification and confirmation bias — the strong human tendency to dismiss or distort evidence contrary to our beliefs and readily seek out evidence that supports their views.
We are all remarkably ignorant. What differentiates the misinformed from the factually informed person is awareness of our own ignorance, the humility required to open up to new ideas, the courage to say “I don't know” or “I was mistaken” and the curiosity, motivation, and discipline to always continue to learn.
The figure links to the states that neighbor this one. This can help orient you to this state both horizontally, showing the action and emotion states at this level of development, and vertically showing the cognitive levels before and after this one.